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Types of InfoObjects-Different types of InfoObjects SAP BI BW

Warm wishes to all readers again. Grt to see u all again.
Correct me if there are any mistakes pls.

The question may like this:

What are InfoObjects?
What are the types of InfoObjects?
What are Fixed Dimension InfoObjects, Can you say some of them? And how they differ from Characteristic InfoObjects and KF InfoObjects?

Business evaluation objects are known in BI BW as InfoObjects. These play vital/important role in modeling. Everything is based on InfoObjects we create. Business evaluation objects (for example, customers, and sales) are referred to as InfoObjects in BW. InfoObjects are the smallest components in BW. For exapmle, Business Object like customer, product, etc....

So what they are so used for?
They are used to structure the information that is needed to create larger BW objects, such as InfoCubes or ODS Objects or InfoProviders.

InfoObjects are divided into:
1.       Characteristic InfoObjects  (Diagram 1)
2.       KeyFigure InfoObjects (Diagram 2)
3.       Fixed Dimensions –SAP defined (Diagram 3)
a.        TimeCharacteristics
b.       TechnicalCharacteristics
c.        UnitCharacteristics

Types Of InfoObjects

1.       Characteristic InfoObjects: Objects that are used to calculate and analyze present Key Figures.
                Eg.           Sales Office: 0 SALESOFFICE,
                                Customer: 0CUSTOMER,
                                material: 0MATERIAL)
2.       Key Figure InfoObjects:
Data part of an InfoObject. They are quantifiable values. (provides the values to be evaluated)
                Eg.           Quantity Sold: 0QUANTITY,
                                Revenue: 0REVENUE)

3.       Time Characteristic InfoObjects :
Characteristics that are assigned to the dimension of time. Time characteristics form the time reference frame for   many data analyses and evaluations. they are delivered with Business Content & its not possible to define your own Time Characteristics.
                Eg.           calendarday: 0CALDAY: Time characteristics with largest granularity
                                calendaryear:0CALYEAR : Time characteristics with smallest granularity
                                Fiscal Year: 0FISCYEAR : Time characteristics with smallest granularity)
4.       Technical Characteristic InfoObjects:
Only of structural use within BW. These have an organizational function within SAP.
                Eg.           requestid: 0REQID
                                Changeid: 0CHNGID
                                (infoobject changeid delivers the numbers allocated during change runs)
                                (infoobject 0reqid delivers the numbers the system allocates when loading requests)
5.       Unit InfoObjects:
Units for the Key Figures. they enable keyFigure values to be partnered with the corresponding units in evaluations.
                Eg:           currency: 0CURRENCY
                                amount 0AMOUNT
                                unit: 0UNIT

Characteristi InfoObjects: (Diagram1 )
KeyFigure InfoObjects: (Diagram 2)

FixedDimension InfoObjects: (Diagram 3)

The vital/imprtance of InfoObjects  of Incan be evaluated by reading the below points:
Everything is based on InfoObjects!
The Communication Structure displays the structure of the InfoSource. It contains all (logically grouped) of the InfoObjects belonging to the InfoSource of the SAP (BW) System, like Chars & KeyFigure Objects.
Extract Structure is a record layout of InfoObjects.
Transfer Structure maps data source fields to InfoSource InfoObjects.
The update rules specify how the InfoObjects (Key Figures, Time Characteristics, and Characteristics) are updated in the DataTargets from the Communication Structure of an InfoSource. You are therefore connecting an InfoSource with an InfoCube or ODS object.
The update rules assign InfoObjects in the InfoSources to InfoObjects in data targets & establish many to many relationships between InfoSource & DataTargets.
Transfer rules are a set of transformations defining the mapping of fields available in a specific DataSource to the fields used in the InfoSource definition. We create transfer rules by assigning a data source to InfoSource and assigning InfoObjects to the fields.
From 3 types of transfer rules, you are only ever allowed to enter one which is InfoObject.
Routine: Conversion routines are ABAP programs that you can create yourself. The routine always refers to just one InfoObject of the transfer structure.
An InfoSource is a quantity of InfoObjects that belong together and that contain all the information available on a business process (for example, cost center accounting). The structure where the InfoObjects are stored is called a communication structure.
An InfoSource contains a number of InfoObjects which structure the information needed to create InfoCubes / ODS Objects in the SAP (BW) System.
Is used to load data from Communication Structure to Data Targets i.e ODS, Infoobjects, InfoCubes by using Update Rules.
The components of an InfoSource is
Communication Structure
InfoArea is used to organize InfoCubes & InfoObjects. Each InfoCube is assigned to an InfoArea.
Through IOC, each InfoObject is assigned to an InfoArea.

Thanks for reading


Warm wishes to all readers. Its grt to see u all again.

 Am getting many mails from readers asking questions regarding the interview.
They asked:
Am fully perfect (prepared) in SAP BI, but am having fear of attending the interview.
What the questions the recruiter ask?
How much experience to add in my resume?

Don't get fear, no one will shoot u if u go to attend interview.....
Questions will be as per the Company's Project Requirement......
Experience to project? More the experience u project, much tough will be the interview.....

So what to do: Consider u r going to war, assume u had no exact weapon. so what happens, ultimate failure occurs. So in our scenario, Weapon is SAP BI BW knowledge to win.

If you want to study all the SAP BI BW contents, it may take 2-3 yrs, i.e. equally time taken for graduation course. But i want to say one thing thoroughly prepare the concepts, where your work will flow in Real-Time.

Your work will focus on only these concepts:
Modeling of:

Extractions: FI_SL , FI_GL, CO_PA, Generic Extractors, and Various DataFlows
Reporting: Creating Input Ready Query, BEx Query Designer, BEX Wad etc.

Process Chains
APD-Analysis Process Designer

Performance regarding Front end (Reporting) and Back end (Modeling & Extraction)

These are the common interview questions repeatedly they ask in every interview face-to-face or telephonic.

  1. Tell something about your self?
  2. Differences between star schema & extended star schema?
  3. Checking extractor & How its working?
  4. What is reference and template?

If any one ask u the 3 questions, leaving 1st question.
What the answer will be?
Memorize the answers now as this is a real interview.

You must explain each concept broadly minimum 3-5 minutes for each question, so that the interviewer comes to know you have knowledge. Am only insisting on main thing, gather knowledge (Theoretical concepts) to crack interview.

  1. Tell something about your self?
What you say? Don't say your history starting from ur child hood (Introduction). If u say all about: starting of education and the year of passing and regarding the career, the interviewer will become bored.

So what to do?
Try only to explain the strengths u had, and explain ur work on SAP BI as a consultant.

Now feel relaxed.
Ok Readers! Just rate (1-10) your self now how perfect you are. So u r now in ur shoes and know ur capability.

I like this below quote said by Dr. Seuss
You have brains in your head. You have feet in your shoes. You can steer yourself in any direction you choose. You're on your own, and you know what you know. And you are the guy who'll decide where to go.
Said by Dr. Seuss 

Prepare well.

Thank you so much reader
Hav Grt Day

Star Schema Vs Extended Star Schema (Differences)

Correct me if there are any mistakes pls.
This question will be asked in every BI BW interview.
May be it may comes in second or third in ranking.

Fact table surrounded by dimension tables
Fact table surrounded by dimension tables, surrounded by SID table, surrounded by master data attributes texts & hierarchies.
Dimension tables=master data table (i.e. Same)
Dimension table not =master data table(i.e. Not same)
Master data resides inside the fact table & dimension tables also reside inside the cube
Master data resides outside the InfoCube & dimension tables reside inside the InfoCube & contains no master data
Star like
Not star, scattered
16 angles
16*248(SID tables)
Common dimensions
Unit & time
Fact table: PK ( primary key)
Dimension table: FK ( foreign key)
PK, SID (SID tables provide the links between the md & the dim tables)
Fact table : huge
Dimension table: small
Fact table: small
Dimension Table: Big
No SID tables, only fact tables & dimension tables
F table, E table, Packaged dimension, Time dimension, Unit dimension, N=user dimension tables. Extra tables that are SID tables, master data tables( P, Q, T, X, Y)
Multiple languages
Yes because hierarchies are present
Data retrieval & performance
Data retrieval & performance  slow as degraded uses alphanumeric keys in fact table
Data retrieval & performance fast as SID’S is a numeric key in fact table
Slowly Changing Dimension
Not applicable
Yes applicable time dependent
Query Performance
Slow or degraded
Enhanced performance, because aggregated KF are stored in their own fact tables
Dimension sharing
Yes shared by using SID tables
MD reusability
Yes, reusable
Yes, aggregates in its own table for faster access
SAP terminology
Simply cube
Simply InfoCube
Data Redundancy
Dim tables are specific to a fact table, i.e. Dimensions are not shared across other fact tables and Cubes. When another fact table needs the same dim data, another dim table that’s specific to a new fact table is needed. So this situation leads to slower performance, because data will be duplicated in several dim tables  instead of sharing data from one single table
There is no data redundancy because, there the dimension tables are shared from one single table.
Diagrammatic representation
See below Diagram 1
See below Diagram 2
Diagrammatic representation
See below Diagram 3
See below Diagram 4

Diagram 1 Star Schema:

Diagram 2 ESS Extended Star Schema:

Diagram 3 Star Schema elaborated:

Diagram 4 ESS Extended Star Schema elaborated:

For interview purpose you can explain as below:

STAR SCHEMA – a representation of a cube:
Star Schema is a model in which Fact table surrounded by dimension tables. Dimension tables=master data table (i.e. Same ) and Master data resides inside the fact table & dimension tables also reside inside the cube, appears as a star like in diagram or graphical representation. We can analyze the data in 16 angles and has two common dimensions, Unit dimension & time dimension, with two keys (primary key) PK for Fact table: and FK (foreign key) for Dimension table. Actually the size of the Fact table is huge and the size of Dimension table is small. Data retrieval and performance is slow as degraded because of alphanumeric keys in the fact table. So the query performance also will be slow. In SAP terminology, it is simply called CUBE. Important point here to consider in star schema is data redundancy or data duplication occurs, i.e. dimension tables are specific to a fact table, i.e. Dimensions are not shared across other fact tables and Cubes. When another fact table needs the same dimension data, another dim table that’s specific to a new fact table is needed. So this situation leads to slower performance, because data will be duplicated in several dim tables instead of sharing data from one single table. The major drawbacks include, star schema doesn’t support aggregates, hierarchies, multiple languages, slowly changing dimensions, and master data is not reusable and no drill down capabilities supported.

Extended Star Schema: E S S: Representation of an InfoCube:

Extended Star Schema is a model in which the fact table is surrounded by dimension tables, surrounded by SID tables, surrounded by Master Data attributes, texts and hierarchies. Dimension tables are not equal to master data tables, I.e. not same and master data resides outside the InfoCube and dimension tables resides inside the InfoCube and contains no master data, appears not as a star like, rather it looks like scattered in diagram or graphical representation. We can analyze the cube in 16 into 248 (SID tables) and has three common dimensions like packaged dimension, time dimension & unit dimension, with PK (primary key), SID tables which provide the links between the master data and the dimension table. Actually the size of fact table is small and dimension table is big. Here in the E S S apart from F, E, P, T, U, N tables, extra tables that are SID tables master data tables that are P, Q, T, X, Y are formed. Data retrieval and performance is fast as SIDs has numeric key in the fact table. So the query performance will be faster. In SAP terminology it is simply called InfoCube and the master data in InfoCube-E S S is reusable. And there will be no data redundancy because dimension tables are shared from one single table. Importance of E S S is that it supports aggregates as it has aggregates in its own table, supports Hierarchies, supports Multiple language, supports slowly changing dimensions, supports drill down capabilities & the master data is reusable.

Correct me if there are any mistakes pls.